P&D - Peeled, deveined shrimp.
Pacific Oyster - Or Japanese
Oyster. Typically large, with an elongated, fragile shell, which can
reach up to 12 inches, the pacific oyster is not eaten on the half
shell. Because of its size and texture, it is almost always cut up for
soups, stews and other dishes. It is found along the Pacific coast and
is also known as the Japanese oyster.
- Average size 40-55 cm, weighing 2-3 kg but some up to 65cm and 5 kg.
Occurs around New Zealand and southern Australia. Not related to true
salmons, despite its alternative names of Pacific salmon and Australian
salmon. Speckled light green-blue above, white below, juvenile fish with
additional brown markings. Found in inshore waters all around New
Zealand but most common from Kaikoura northwards. Mostly taken by purse
seine, some by trawl. Caught all year round but main season in April to
October when schooling at surface. Flesh rather dark but lightens on
cooking. Medium texture, strong flavour. Especially tasty when soused,
smoked or cooked by moist heat, ie. poaching or steaming. Suited to
canning, when the flesh turns a delicate pink.
- Or Pacific Hake.
The most abundant fish resource off the West Coast, Pacific whiting are
also one of the best seafood values around. Their clean-tasting, white
meat is easily adapted to a variety of applications, from fish and chips
to pan frying or baking. Pacific whiting, or Pacific hake as it is
sometimes called, is a member of the Merluccidae family, which includes
more than a dozen species around the world that are marketed as either
hake or whiting. Pacific whiting, Argentine hake and South African hake
are the most abundant species in this family.
Pan Ready - A fish that has been
headed, gutted, scaled and had its fins clipped.
Parasites: Worms or larvae that may occur occasionally in fish. All
processors carefully inspect fish for parasites and cut out any
discovered prior to shipment. Dead parasites are harmless but
Parrot Fish: Any of various
chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae.
These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and
the shape of their jaws. "Also called "Pollyfish."
PDI - Peeled, deveined and
individually frozen shrimp.
PDTO - raw
peeled deveined tail on (in reference to shrimp or prawns)
Pasteurizing: Process of heating
product sufficiently to kill most bacteria, but not enough to cook the
Pectoral Spot - A dark patch on
the side of some fishes (e.g. red cod, silver warehou) immediately in
front of the pectoral fin.
Pelagic: Migratory species of fish
that live near the surface such as tuna and marlin.
Per Capita Consumption:
Consumption of edible fishery products in the U.S., divided by the total
population. In calculating annual per capita consumption, the National
Marine Fisheries Service estimates the resident population of the U.S.
in July of each year.
Perch: Any of a number of
spiny-finned freshwater fish found in North America and Europe. The best
known U.S. perch is the "yellow perch." Perch have a mild, firm, low-fat
flesh. The saltwater white perch and ocean perch are not true perches.
Peritoneum - The membrane lining a
fish's belly cavity.
Periwinkle - The periwinkle, also
called bigaros, sea snails or winkles, is essentially a sea snail. While
there are over 300 species of this spiral-shelled univalve mollusk, few
are edible, and are rarely found the the U.S. Like barnacles, they are
found attached to sunken objects like rocks, wharves, and pilings. The
most common edible periwinkle is marine and found along the Atlantic
coasts of Europe and North America. It only grows to about one inch.
Popular in Europe, they’re cooked in their shells, then eaten like
Pickerel: A small (between two and
three pound) variety of the freshwater pike. Pickerel are know for their
lean, firm flesh.
Pike: A family of fish that
includes the pike, pickerel, and the muskellunge. These freshwater fish
have long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and provide a lean,
firm, bony flesh. Used in French "quenelles" and the Jewish "gefilte
Pilchard - Average adult size
10-20 cm, some up to 25 cm. Occurs around New Zealand and also
Australia. Blue above, greenish on sides, silver below, 8-14 black spots
along side; easily distinguished by this colour pattern. Scales easily
dislodged. Pelagic, usually in pure shoals but may be mixed with anchovy
and sprat. Widespread in inshore waters around North Island and northern
South Island. The existence of the names sardine and pilchard creates
the impression there are two separate species. Sardines are the young of
the species and pilchard is the name for the adult form. Caught with
purse-seine and lampara nets. Currently only small local fisheries,
fished mainly for bait. Flesh dark, oily. Suitable for canning and
marketed as two separate products, i.e. canned sardines and canned
pilchards, depending on size.
Pinbones: Fine bones found along
the middle of fillets.
Pink Salmon: A lower fat variety
of salmon. Also called the "humpback salmon". The meat is high in Omega
Plaice: A mild flavored flatfish
distinguishable by its orange spots. Prepared and cooked as Sole.
Plate Freezing - Freezing
by use of a refrigerant flowing through hollow metal plates that are in
direct contact with pre-packed seafood. Typically the plates are
moveable to sandwich the product between two chilled surfaces,
compressing it to ensure uniform contact and freezing.
PND - raw
peeled deveined (in reference to shrimp or prawns)
- Simmering food in liquid. A perfect preparation method for seafood
since it adds moisture but doesn’t overpower the flavor of the fish.
For a quick and easy poached fish dish, use vegetable or chicken
stock in a pan large enough for each piece of fish to lie flat. Pour
enough liquid to cover the fish and bring to a simmer (165–180
degrees). Fish 1” thick will take 15–20 minutes.
Pole & Line - Skipjack tuna and
albacore are concentrated around a fishing vessel by the release of
quantities of small bait fish. Fishermen use a stout fishing rod
with several metres of line and a barbless hook attached, to flick
striking tuna onto the deck.
Pollock: This low to moderate fat
fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor.
Pollack is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as
"Coalfish" or "Saithe," this saltwater fish is a member of the cod
Pollyfish: Any of various chiefly
tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These
fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the
shape of their jaws. "Also called "parrot fish."
Polylined Carton - A package lined
with plastic on the inside to protect seafood products. "Polybagged" and
"polywrapped" are similar forms of plastic packaging.
Pomfret: This small, high-fat fish
has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of
the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the
Pompano: This saltwater fish is a
succulent, fine-textured fish with a mild delicate flavor. This
expensive, moderately fat fish is considered by many experts as
America's finest fish.
Popsicle pack - Usually a square
or rectangle, cut from a block of frozen fish. Weights vary from 1 1/2
to about 6 ounces. May be plain or breaded, raw or precooked.
Porgy: Also know as "Scup" or "Porgie."
These saltwater fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Porgy is
often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.
Portion: Usually a square or
rectangle, cut from a block of frozen fish. Weights vary from 1-1/2 oz.
to about 6 oz. May be plain or breaded, raw or pre-cooked.
- Fish portion packs may bear grading
and inspection marks. Raw portions are at least 3/8 inch thick, and
contain at least 75% fish. The fish from which the block is made
must be fillets from only one species, skin on or skinless.
- Minced fish portion is a term used
for portions manufactured from mechanically separated fish flesh.
Labels must, and menus should, indicate whether fish portions are
"minced fish" or "fillet fish" portions.
Potting - Small, rigid-frame,
baited traps generally of rectangular configuration with fyke entrance(s)
are used for catching either blue cod or rock lobster.
Prawn - A term commonly used to
refer to freshwater shrimp, larger sized shrimp, or a smaller variety of
shellfish, that is a member of the lobster family. This term causes a
lot of confusion because, in the U.S., it’s used to describe several
different shellfish, all of which are “correct” usages.
It can refer to part of the lobster
family, such as spiny or rock Lobsters, or scampi. Other names in
this group include Dublin Bay prawn, Italian scampi, langoustine
(French), langostino (Spanish), and Florida lobsterette.
They are shaped like small Maine lobsters, some with minuscule
claws. They are usually 6 to 8 inches long.
Prawn also can describe any large
shrimp, usually those that weigh in at 15 (or fewer) shrimp to the
pound. These are also called jumbo shrimp or colossal
The term also refers to freshwater
prawns, distinguished from shrimp which live in salt water.
Actually, these prawns migrate to fresh water to spawn, just like
salmon. They look like elongated lobsters, with long spindly legs.
Precooked: Portion which has been
cooked or partially cooked so as to require only heating or minimal
cooking prior to service.
Previously Frozen - Frozen seafood
that has been slacked out, or thawed for sale or use and sold unfrozen.
Processing Block - A block of
fillet pieces used for fish sticks.
PTO - Peeled, tail-on shrimp
PUD - raw
peeled Un-deveined (in reference to shrimp or prawns)
Purse Seine - A very large net of
up to I km length and 300 m depth is used to encircle surface schooling
fish such as mackerel, trevally and skipjack tuna. During retrieval the
bottom of the net is closed or pursed by drawing a purse line through a
series of rings to prevent the fish escaping. They are then brailed