Farm raised - seafood which has
been grown in containment and fed a controlled diet. See also
FAS - Frozen at sea.
Fancy Pack - A term used for
top-quality solid canned tuna, each can containing three to four large
pieces of premium cuts.
Fantail - A shrimp that has been
peeled with the exception of the last tail section.
Fat Line - The fattiest part of a
fish, mostly along the belly walls and lateral line. The fat line is
often removed for milder flavor and improved shelf life.
Fathead - A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called
"California sheepshead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.
Feathering - Trimming the fillet
to remove the "frill" of small bones around the edge.
Filet - French spelling for fillet (see Fillet)
Fillet - A slice of fish flesh of irregular size and shape which is
removed from the carcass by a cut made parallel to the backbone, usually
2 to 12 oz. Some fillets, especially of fresh fish and those used to
make up the larger frozen blocks, may be larger than 12 oz. However, for
most institutional foodservice and home uses, frozen fish fillets over
12 oz. are not generally available. Special cut fillets are taken from
solid large blocks; these include a "natural" cut fillet, wedge, rhombus
or tail shape. Fillets may be skinless or have skin on; pinbones may or
may not be removed.
Filter Feeder - A shellfish such
as an oyster or mussel, which obtains its food by filtration from the
sea water which it pumps through its system.
Finfish - An aquatic vertebrate of
the superclass Pisces.
Finger Pack - A term used
for layer-packed shrimp.
Finger Sticks - rectangles of fish
cut from a frozen block, usually 1 by 3 inches, weighing 1 to 2 ounces
Fingers - Irregular-shaped pieces of fish, similar to a long, thin
fillet, breaded or battered, raw or pre-cooked. Weight per piece varies,
usually available portioned (1 to 3 oz.), or in bulk.
Finnan Haddie - A medium-sized haddock split down the back with
backbone left on, then brined and hot smoked.
Fish - Water-borne animals are
broken down into two very broad categories: fish and shellfish.
In the most general terms, fish are vertebrates, have fins, and gills;
while shellfish are invertebrates, either having shells of one sort or
another, or having evolved past the need for one. (For more details, see
- Fish are further separated into
freshwater and saltwater fish. Because fresh water provides less
buoyancy than salt water, freshwater fish have hundreds of tiny,
light bones in a network throughout the flesh. Saltwater fish, on
the other hand, have thicker, fewer bones, making them more
attractive for eating.
- Fish are divided into three broad
categories based on the fat content of their flesh: lean,
moderate-fat and high-fat fish. In lean fish (e.g. flounder), the
fat is concentrated in the liver rather than the flesh. The meat
tends to be mild and lightly colored. Moderate-fat fish have darker
color, firmer texture and more assertive flavor than low fat fish.
High-fat fish (e.g. tuna) can average 12 percent fat, but some have
fat contents up to 30 percent. These fish have the darkest color,
firmest texture and most distinctive flavor.
- Fish are also categorized as
flatfish or roundfish. Flatfish are adapted to swimming
long the bottom of the sea or ocean. There are oval shaped, with
both eyes on the topside of the body, and are usually dark on the
top and pale or white on the bottom. Roundfish have round or
oval bodies, with eyes on opposite sides of the head.
Fish Sticks - Rectangles of fish cut from a frozen block, usually 1 by
3 inches, weighing 1 to 2 oz. each, breaded/battered. Fish stick packs
may bear grading and inspection marks. Fish sticks may also be cut or
extruded from a minced fish block. Labels must, and menus should, show
whether fish sticks are "minced fish" or "fillet fish" sticks.
Flatfish - that have a flat body with both eyes located on the
upper side. Flatfish swim "sideways" and include "flounder," "halibut,"
and "sole." Most of these fish have sweet, delicate white
flesh that chefs and consumers everywhere enjoy: low fat, fine textured
meat and mild flavor. All flatfish belong to the order Pleuronectiformes,
which means they have both of their eyes on the same side of their head.
All flatfish start out life looking like normal fish, but after a few
weeks, one eye migrates to the other side of their head, their bodies
flatten into an oval shape, one side turns dark and one side white and
they settle to the bottom. The meat from a flatfish typically varies in
color: fillets from the bottom (white) side of the fish will be thinner
and whiter, while fillets from the top (dark) side will be thicker and
more gray. Even though many of them are called soles, all the flatfish
fished commercially in the U.S. are really flounders. To show the extent
of the confusion:
- Pacific Dover Sole is a
flounder not the same as true English Dover Sole from the
North Atlantic, is the most common flounder sold on the West Coast.
- Yellowfin sole is a small
- Arrowtooth flounder, which
is found from California to Alaska, has a soft flesh and is often
marketed as “turbot,” although it is not European turbot, the most
expensive flatfish in the world.
- Greenland turbot, which is
caught in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans, is not
really a turbot either, but instead is a member of the halibut
family. Outside of North America it is called Greenland halibut or
black halibut. To avoid marketing confusion with Pacific halibut,
the halibut industry successfully lobbied to have the name of this
flatfish changed to turbot.
- California halibut is
actually a left-eyed flounder.
- Fluke is a common name for
summer flounder, a popular East Coast flatfish that occurs from the
southern Gulf of Maine to South Carolina. Because it is a closely
related species, California halibut may also be called fluke on
occasion. It’s enough to make someone flounder, or at least try
Fletch - Large boneless fillet of halibut, swordfish or tuna.
Flounder - A fine-textured flatfish prized for its delicate flavor.
Some of the more popular varieties include "Fab," "English Sole," and
Flying Fish - This fish, a delicacy in the West Indies and Japan, gains
speed underwater then leaves the water except for the lower lobe of its
tail. It then vigorously beats its tail, extends its ventral fins and
can fly a 1,000 feet or more.
FOB - Means free on board and a location usually follows this term.
Charges beyond the termination point are the buyer's responsibility.
Formed Fillets - Portions cut from blocks in such a way that they
appear to be natural fillets, although all are exactly the same size and
Freezer Burn - Dehydration caused by the evaporation loss of moisture
from product. It is recognized by a whitish, cottony appearance of the
flesh, especially at the cut edges or thinner places.
Fresh - Product that has never
been frozen, cooked, cured or otherwise preserved.
Fresh Frozen - Indicates fish were
quickly frozen while still fresh.
Frog's Legs - Like snails froglegs are usually categorised with seafood
-they are the tender, faintly sweet white meat from the hind legs of
frogs. Because of their mild taste, they should be cooked quickly and
without and overpowering flavorings.
Frogfish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a
mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler
fish," "monkfish," or "goosefish."
Front Section - A large section
(thicker than a steak) taken from the forward 1/3 of a fish's body.
Frost Fish - (
Frozen - Fish that have been
subjected to rapid lowering of temperature, generally to 0° F or lower,
in such a manner as to preserve the inherent quality.
Pronounced FOO-goo, this is the Japanese name for a pufferfish that
contains a poison sac so toxic, a single fish contains enough to kill 30
adults. Approximately, 100 people die every year of fugu poisoning. Yet,
it’s still a delicacy in both Japan and the Philippines. In Japan, it is
used in both sashimi and nabemono preparations, and only qualified chefs
trained in removing the sac may prepare it. In Japan, it is eaten almost
in a ritual, first with the fins being fried and served with sake (Fugu
Hire-zake); then the skin is de-spiked and served on a salad (Yubiki)
with a ponzu dressing; and finally the flesh sliced and served. Trivia:
It is the only food not permitted to be served to the Emperor of Japan.
Full Nape Fillet - Fillet with
pinbones in, nape on and tail on. Also called "full fillet" or "whole
Fyke Net - Set in lakes and
streams for the catching of eels. Having swum into the net the eels are
unable to escape past the fyke (non-return) entrance.