C&F: Shipping term for cost and
freight. When quoted, a C&F price means price delivered.
C&P - Cooked and peeled shrimp.
Can be deveined as well.
Cakes - or fritters, dumplings. A
mixture of flour or meal; one or more seafood components and other
ingredients such as vegetables and seasonings in a batter that is
sautéed, fried or baked.
Calamari - This ten-armed cephalopod, commonly known as "squid," is
related to the octopus. They vary in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in
length. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor.
Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture. Called by its Italian name,
calamari, this cephalopod has ten arms and is related to both the
octopus and cuttlefish. Squid are mollusks, just like clams, mussels and
oysters. The difference is squid have an internal shell, which is called
a pen. Squid can usually be found from 2 to 3 inches long up to 10
inches. Although almost a hundred species of squid are fished
commercially, two species, the Japanese flying squid and the Argentine
shortfin squid account for over half the world harvest. Squid is the
second most widely consumed shellfish in the world but is more popular
in Asian and Mediterranean cuisines than in U.S., with the exception of
fried calamari, a staple appetizer at many restaurants, and in sushi. As
with octopus, the the ink can be used to color or flavor dishes such as
Black Pasta or Calamares en su Tinta (“squid in their ink”).
Calico Bass - One of a large number of North American freshwater fish
closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors,
calico bass are also known as "sunfish."
California Sheepshead - A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse
family. Also called "sheepshead," "fathead," and "redhead." Its meat is
white, tender, and lean.
Candlefish - A rich and oily mild-flavored fish. This variety of smelt
is so named because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat
flesh and use them for candles. Also known as the "Eulachon."
Candling - A process by which
fillets are placed on a backlighted, translucent table that reveals the
presence of parasites in the flesh.
Carapace - The upper outer
skeleton, excluding the tail, of crustaceans such as the rock lobster.
Cardinal Fish - (
Carp - This freshwater fish ranges from 2 to 7 pounds and has a lean
white flesh. It is the primary ingredient for the Jewish dish called
Catch Weight - Some species with
large fillets, like grouper, are sold as catch-weight fillets. For
example, if you order a 10-pound fillet, what arrives could range from 9
1/2 to 11 pounds. Suppliers do not want to cut up a natural, 11-pound
fillet and have small pieces left over.
Catfish - This fish is firm, low in fat, and has a mild flavor. Most
catfish are fresh water varieties, but there is a salt water variety
that called the "hogfish." The channel catfish is considered the best
Caviar - Sturgeon eggs which have been preserved in salt. Caviar comes
in many grades and types and must be transported and held fresh at
temperatures between 25F and 30F. (See Roe)
Cello Wraps - Fillets wrapped together in cellophane or polyethylene
film. Each wrap is usually labeled with the type of fish, the packer and
the brand. Six polywraps per 5-lb. box is standard.
Center Cut - The center third of a
Center Section - A larger section
(thicker than a steak) taken from the center 1/3 of the body.
Cephalopod - The most developed
class of mollusk. Culinarily, it includes the octopus, cuttlefish, and
squid. Cephalopods have advanced beyond the need for an external shell,
and all share share two major characteristics—tentacles attached to the
head (hence the name “head-foot” in Latin), and ink sacs. These sacs are
used to evade predators; commercially the ink is used to color pasta,
among other things, black. Other than fried or grilled calamari (squid),
they have never been widely accepted in the U.S. outside of Asian
cuisines. In many southern European and Asian cuisines, they are quite
Ceviche - also spelled cebiche or seviche is a form of citrus
marinated seafood salad. Ceviche originated in Peru.
Chikuwa - A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.
Chill Killed - A process employed
in the harvest of aquacultured species whereby the temperature of the
pond is lowered until the fish die.
Chill Packed - A packing method in
which fish are packed in cartons with gel packs and no ice.
Chilled - The result of a process
in which fish is thoroughly cooled to a temperature approaching that of
- A group of fishes with
cartilaginous skeletons closely related to the Elasmobranchs (q.v.)
which includes the elephant fish and the ghost sharks.
Chinook Salmon - Considered the finest Pacific salmon. This high-fat,
soft textured fish can reach up to 120 pounds. Also called the "king
CHOSO - cooked head on shell on (in reference to
shrimp or prawns)
Chowder - a rich soup using seafood, vegetables and either a tomato
based or dairy based broth.
Chub - One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and in
Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called
"Lake Herring" and "Cisco."
Chum Salmon - This, the smallest and most delicate flavored of the
salmons, has the lightest color and the lowest fat content of the
various salmon varieties. Also called the "dog salmon". The meat is high
in Omega 3 oil.
Chunks - Cross-sections of large dressed fish, having a cross-section
of backbone as the only bone. They are similar to a beef or pork roast
and are ready for cooking.
Ciguatera - An illness caused by
eating the toxic flesh of fish caught in tropical and island waters. A
neurotoxin found in certain types of reef fish. The toxin accumulates in
the flesh as a result of eating some forms of algae, or preying on fish
that eat the algae. An area-specific, not species-specific problem, the
toxin is believed to originate in microscopic algae that the fish eat.
The fish most commonly implicated are amberjack, snapper, grouper, mahi
mahi, barracuda and reef fish of the Carrangidae (jack) family.
Cisco - One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and
in Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also
called "lake herring" and "chub."
Clam - These bivalve mollusks come in two varieties. Hard-shell clams
include littleneck, cherrystone, and chowder clams. The soft-shelled
clams, such as steamer, razor, and geoduck clams, have thin brittle
shells that can't completely close. Clams tend to be a bit fishier and
stronger than oysters in flavor. Steaming and baking are the most common
ways of cooking. All clams need to be cooked gently, else they toughen.
Clam trivia: Eastern Native Americans used parts of the shell from
hardshell calms to make wampum—beads used for barter, among other
purposes. Hence our use of wampum as another term for money or cash.
Cleaned Shrimp - Shrimp that has
been peeled and washed, a process that removes some or all of the vein
but is not thorough enough to warrant the P&D (Peeled & De-veined)
Clipper - Denotes high-quality
swordfish or mahi mahi, usually caught and frozen at sea.
Cluster - A product form
consisting of a group of legs and a claw from one side of a crab, with
the connecting shoulder area still attached. Also known as a "section."
Cockle - Any of various small,
jumping bivalves with heart-shaped, radially ribbed shells. Most don’t
exceed 2 inches across. The rock cockle the best known and most widely
used for food. It’s found from the Pacific Northwest to San Francisco,
and from large beds off England’s coast. As they burrow into mud or
sand, they are typically quite gritty and so must be washed thoroughly.
They have always been more popular in Europe than the United
States—think linguine with clam sauce, a dish where the meat is less
important than the liquid the shells hold. Cockles are very similar to
clams. Like clams, they can be eaten either raw or cooked. Many of the
cockles sold in the U.S. are flown in live from New Zealand. Cockles
from New Zealand’s South Island are larger (15 per pound) than cockles
from the North Island (20-25 per pound).
Cocktail Claws - Crab claws with
their end caps removed.
Cod - A popular lean, firm, white meat fish from the Pacific and the
North Atlantic. "Scrod" is the name for young cod (and haddock) that
weight less that 2.5 pounds. "Haddock," "Hake," and "Pollock" are close
relatives of the cod.
Coho Salmon - This high-fat variety of salmon provides a firm-textured,
pink to orange-red flesh. Also called the "silver salmon". The meat is
high in Omega 3 oil.
Colbert - where the backbone and bones are removed leaving the fillets
attached to the head usually either Sole or Whiting.
Cold Canning - A process in which
shellfish (specifically lobster) meat is cooked, picked out of the
shell, packed in cans and frozen without heat-treating. Cold-canned meat
must be refrigerated.
Cold Smoked - Fish smoked at low
temperatures (around 80¼ F) for 18 hours to several days, producing a
moist, delicately flavored product.
Collar - The bones of a fish just
behind the gills; they support the pectoral fins. The collar is waste
when a fish is steaked or filleted. Most headless fish are sold with the
collar on because it protects the fish.
Conch - this term is often applied to species of whelk, caught along
the USA eastern seaboard. Whelk are large mollusks, similar to
snails. The meat is tough but has a distinctive flavor. Whelk or
"Conch" meat is popular in Oriental cuisine for dishes such as
sushi. It is also popular in Caribbean cuisine and is used in
chowders and other recipes.
Conger Eel - (
- Fish is naturally tender, requiring short cooking times at high
temperatures. Allow 10 minutes per inch of thickness (at the thickest
part) for fresh fish, 20 minutes per inch for frozen fish.
- The roe (eggs) of a
crustacean. It gets its name from the coral-red color it turns when
cooked. Roe is often eaten plain, even directly from a lobster or crab,
or used in sauce or other preparation such as a butter. A female lobster
or crab is often ordered for just this reason. See also Roe
Counts - The number of shrimp per
pound in a given package; i.e., 16/20 means each net-weight pound
consists of 16 to 20 shrimp. The larger the count, the smaller the
shrimp. Scallop meats are also sold by a count per pound.
CPDTO - cooked peeled deveined tail on (in
reference to shrimp or prawns)
CPND - cooked peeled deveined (in reference to
shrimp or prawns)
CPUD - cooked peeled Un-deveined (in reference
to shrimp or prawns)
Crab - Any of a large variety of 10-legged crustaceans (shelled
animals). There are freshwater and salt water varieties. It is the
second most popular shellfish. (Shrimp is the most popular.) The
major crabs from the Pacific are the Dungeness Crab, the King Crab (also
called Alaskan King Crab) from the far North Pacific, and the Snow Crab.
King crab is sweet, moist and rich. It is a bit more firm and coarser
than Dungeness crab meat. The body meat is slightly flakier than the leg
meat. Snow crab meat is sweet and delicate, with more fibrous texture
than king crab. The claw meat is more firm than that of the shoulder
meat. Some compare the Dungeness crab meat to that of the Maine lobster,
say it is more tender. The meat is sweet, flavorful and semi-nutty.
- Seafood packer and processor, canned, fresh and frozen Pasteurized
Crabmeat, Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus Pelagicus, Soft Shell Crab,
Stuffed Raw Crabmeat, Raw Crabmeat Portion
Crappie - One of a large number of North American freshwater fish
closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors,
crappie are also known as "sunfish."
Crayfish - Also called "Crawfish" and "crawdads." Crayfish are
freshwater crustaceans that look like tiny lobsters. Crayfish can be
prepared in any manner appropriate to a lobster. They are very
popular in France (there called écrevisses, New Zealand, and
Scandinavia. Most of the U.S. crayfish come from the Mississippi basin
Croaker - Any of a variety of fish named for the peculiar drumming or
deep croaking noise they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The
croaker family includes the black croaker, black drum, hardhead,
kingfish, and redfish.
Croquettes - Patties containing a mixture of breading or breadcrumbs
or other binder; usually at least 35% seafood, such as combination of
fish and crabmeat. May have all one kind of seafood, such as shrimp or
crabmeat, or a combination. Product forms include breaded; pre-cooked or
browned; I.Q.F., 2 oz. each, dry-pack.
Cross Contamination - The tainting
that can occur when cooked seafoods come into direct or indirect contact
with raw seafoods and other raw foods or contaminated surfaces and
Crustaceans - Shrimp, crabs, crawfish, crayfish and lobsters.
Crustaceans are shellfish that have a jointed (segmented) body with
pairs of legs on each segment, and a tough exoskeleton. Crustaceans
include lobster, shrimp, crab, and crayfish. Any of various
predominantly aquatic arthropods of the class Crustacea, including
lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles, characteristically having a
segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and paired, jointed limbs.
Cryogenic - Extremely cold freezing process, using liquid nitrogen or
carbon dioxide, often used to freeze high-value items like shrimp or
Curing - Using salt or sugar to draw moisture from the flesh of fish
or other meats to make it unattractive to the growth of spoilage
bacteria. Curing was widely used as a preservation method before the
advent of modern refrigeration techniques. Today, curing is used to give
a pleasing flavor to fish and refrigeration is recommended to preserve
this product from spoilage.
Cusk - A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean
flesh. Also called "tusk" or "torsk."
- Irregularly-shaped triangle cut from a block of frozen
fish. Usually breaded/battered.
Cuttlefish - A relative of the squid and octopus, the cuttlefish has
ten arms that can reach up to 16 inches in length. "Sarume," which is
available in ethnic stores, is cuttlefish that has been seasoned and